To mimic the knee’s functionality during gait, microprocessor-controlled knee joints had been developed that manipulate the flexion of the knee. Some examples are Otto Bock’s C-leg, added in 1997, Ossur’s Rheo Knee, launched in 2005, the Power Knee by using Ossur, added in 2006, the Plié Knee from Freedom Innovations and DAW Industries’ Self Learning Knee (SLK).
The concept changed into at the start developed by means of Kelly James, a Canadian engineer, on the University of Alberta.
A microprocessor is used to interpret and analyze signals from knee-angle sensors and moment sensors. The microprocessor receives alerts from its sensors to determine the sort of motion being hired with the aid of the amputee. Most microprocessor controlled knee-joints are powered via a battery housed in the prosthesis.
The sensory signals computed through the microprocessor are used to govern the resistance generated with the aid of hydraulic cylinders within the knee-joint. Small valves control the quantity of hydraulic fluid that can skip into and out of the cylinder, thus regulating the extension and compression of a piston linked to the top segment of the knee.
The fundamental advantage of a microprocessor-controlled prosthesis is a better approximation to an amputee’s herbal gait. Some permit amputees to stroll close to on foot speed or run. Variations in pace also are viable and are taken into consideration by sensors and communicated to the microprocessor, which adjusts to these adjustments thus. It additionally permits the amputees to stroll downstairs with a step-over-step approach, rather than the one step at a time technique used with mechanical knees. There is some studies suggesting that humans with microprocessor-managed prostheses document greater delight and improvement in functionality, residual limb health, and protection. People may be able to carry out ordinary activities at more speeds, even at the same time as multitasking, and reduce their threat of falls.
However, a few have some large drawbacks that impair its use. They may be vulnerable to water harm and as a consequence extremely good care need to be taken to make sure that the prosthesis stays dry.