The pancreatic lipase acts at the ester bond, hydrolyzing the bond and “releasing” the fatty acid. In triglyceride form, lipids can’t be absorbed by means of the duodenum. Fatty acids, monoglycerides (one glycerol, one fatty acid), and a few diglycerides are absorbed through the duodenum, once the triglycerides were broken down.
In the gut, following the secretion of lipases and bile, triglycerides are cut up into monoacylglycerol and unfastened fatty acids in a technique called lipolysis. They are finally moved to absorptive enterocyte cells lining the intestines. The triglycerides are rebuilt within the enterocytes from their fragments and packaged together with cholesterol and proteins to shape chylomicrons. These are excreted from the cells and gathered by way of the lymph system and transported to the big vessels close to the heart before being mixed into the blood. Various tissues can capture the chylomicrons, freeing the triglycerides to be used as a source of power. Liver cells can synthesize and keep triglycerides. When the frame requires fatty acids as an strength supply, the hormone glucagon alerts the breakdown of the triglycerides by way of hormone-sensitive lipase to release loose fatty acids. As the brain can’t utilize fatty acids as an electricity source (unless converted to a ketone), the glycerol element of triglycerides may be transformed into glucose, via gluconeogenesis by means of conversion into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and then into glyceraldehyde three-phosphate, for brain gas whilst it’s far damaged down. Fat cells can also be broken down because of this if the brain’s desires ever outweigh the frame’s.
Triglycerides can not pass thru cell membranes freely. Special enzymes on the partitions of blood vessels called lipoprotein lipases should wreck down triglycerides into loose fatty acids and glycerol. Fatty acids can then be taken up by means of cells thru the fatty acid transporter (FAT).
Triglycerides, as main additives of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and chylomicrons, play an crucial function in metabolism as energy assets and transporters of dietary fats. They contain extra than twice as an awful lot power (approximately 9 kcal/g or 38 kJ/g) as carbohydrates (about 4 kcal/g or 17 kJ/g).