Transformation, the genetic alteration of a cellular as a result of the advent, uptake and expression of foreign genetic fabric (DNA or RNA). This manner is distinctly common in bacteria, but less so in eukaryotes. Transformation is often used in laboratories to insert novel genes into bacteria for experiments or for business or medical applications. See also molecular biology and biotechnology.
Transduction, the manner wherein bacterial DNA is moved from one bacterium to any other via an endemic (a bacteriophage, or phage).
Bacterial conjugation, a method that entails the switch of DNA thru a plasmid from a donor cellular to a recombinant recipient cellular at some stage in cell-to-mobile touch.
Gene transfer agents, virus-like elements encoded through the host which are found in the alphaproteobacteria order Rhodobacterales.