Moderate and high nice proof from a 2020 evaluate showed that EPA and DHA, together with that discovered in omega−3 polyunsaturated fatty acid dietary supplements, does now not appear to enhance mortality or cardiovascular fitness. There is weak proof indicating that α-linolenic acid can be related to a small reduction within the threat of a cardiovascular event or the danger of arrhythmia.
A 2018 meta-evaluation found no guide that each day consumption of 1 gram of omega−3 fatty acid in people with a records of coronary heart ailment prevents deadly coronary coronary heart disease, nonfatal myocardial infarction or every other vascular occasion. However, omega−3 fatty acid supplementation extra than one gram each day for as a minimum a yr can be defensive in opposition to cardiac dying, sudden death, and myocardial infarction in people who’ve a history of cardiovascular sickness. No shielding impact towards the improvement of stroke or all-motive mortality was visible on this population. A 2018 study observed that omega−3 supplementation changed into helpful in shielding cardiac fitness in folks who did now not often eat fish, especially inside the African American population. Eating a food plan high in fish that include long chain omega−3 fatty acids does appear to decrease the hazard of stroke. Fish oil supplementation has no longer been shown to gain revascularization or odd coronary heart rhythms and has no effect on heart failure hospital admission rates. Furthermore, fish oil supplement research have didn’t aid claims of preventing coronary heart attacks or strokes. In the EU, a overview by means of the European Medicines Agency of omega−three fatty acid drug treatments containing a mixture of an ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid at a dose of one g consistent with day concluded that these medicines aren’t effective in secondary prevention of heart problems in sufferers who have had a myocardial infarction.
Evidence shows that omega−3 fatty acids modestly decrease blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) in human beings with hypertension and in human beings with normal blood strain. Omega−3 fatty acids can also lessen coronary heart price, an emerging threat aspect. Some evidence shows that humans with sure circulatory issues, which includes varicose veins, may additionally benefit from the consumption of EPA and DHA, which may also stimulate blood movement and increase the breakdown of fibrin, a protein concerned in blood clotting and scar formation. Omega−3 fatty acids reduce blood triglyceride stages, however do not substantially alternate the level of LDL cholesterol or HDL cholesterol. The American Heart Association function (2011) is that borderline improved triglycerides, described as 150–199 mg/dL, can be diminished with the aid of 0.5–1.0 grams of EPA and DHA per day; high triglycerides 200–499 mg/dL gain from 1–2 g/day; and >500 mg/dL be handled below a doctor’s supervision with 2–4 g/day using a prescription product. In this population omega−3 fatty acid supplementation decreases the hazard of heart ailment by way of about 25%.
A 2019 overview found that omega-3 fatty acid supplements make very little difference to cardiovascular mortality and that sufferers with myocardial infarction yield no benefit in taking the supplements. A 2021 review observed that omega-3 supplementation did no longer affect cardiovascular sickness effects. A 2021 meta-evaluation confirmed that use of marine omega-3 supplementation turned into associated with an increased risk of atrial traumatic inflammation, with the risk appearing to growth for doses extra than one gram according to day.