The first artificial coronary heart valve was the caged ball valve, a kind of ball check valve, wherein a ball is housed interior a cage. When the heart contracts and the blood strain in the chamber of the coronary heart exceeds the stress on the outside of the chamber, the ball is pushed towards the cage and permits blood to waft. When the heart finishes contracting, the stress in the chamber drops and the ball actions lower back towards the bottom of the valve forming a seal.
In 1952, Charles A. Hufnagel implanted caged ball coronary heart valves into 10 patients (6 of whom survived the operation), marking the primary success in prosthetic heart valves. A similar valve became invented with the aid of Miles ‘Lowell’ Edwards and Albert Starr in 1960, usually called the Starr-Edwards silastic ball valve. This consisted of a silicone ball enclosed in a methyl metacrylate cage welded to a hoop. The Starr-Edwards valve become first implanted in a human on August 25, 1960, and became discontinued through Edwards Lifesciences in 2007.
Caged ball valves are strongly associated with blood clot formation, so people who’ve one required a high diploma of anticoagulation, generally with a target INR of 3.0–4.5.