The archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, while UV irradiated, strongly induces the formation of type IV pili which then allows cell aggregation. Exposure to chemical marketers that purpose DNA damage additionally induces mobile aggregation. Other physical stressors, including temperature shift or pH, do no longer set off aggregation, suggesting that DNA harm is a selected inducer of cell aggregation.
UV-brought about cell aggregation mediates intercellular chromosomal HGT marker trade with high frequency, and UV-precipitated cultures show recombination quotes that exceed the ones of uninduced cultures by using as an awful lot as 3 orders of magnitude. S. Solfataricus cells mixture preferentially with different cells of their very own species. Frols et al. and Ajon et al. suggested that UV-inducible DNA switch is probable an essential mechanism for presenting multiplied restore of damaged DNA through homologous recombination. This system may be regarded as a easy shape of sexual interaction.
Another thermophilic species, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, is capable of go through HGT. S. Acidocaldarius can trade and recombine chromosomal markers at temperatures as much as 84 °C. UV publicity induces pili formation and cell aggregation. Cells with the capacity to aggregate have greater survival than mutants lacking pili which can be unable to combination. The frequency of recombination is extended by DNA harm prompted through UV-irradiation and with the aid of DNA damaging chemical substances.
The u.S.Operon, containing 5 genes, is distinctly brought on with the aid of UV irradiation. The proteins encoded by using the u.S.Operon are employed in UV-caused pili assembly and mobile aggregation leading to intercellular DNA change and homologous recombination. Since this gadget will increase the health of S. Acidocaldarius cells after UV exposure, Wolferen et al. taken into consideration that switch of DNA likely takes location if you want to restore UV-precipitated DNA damages by using homologous recombination.